Our Effulgere line of skin care products are based on
extensive research that our scientists and physicians
have conducted in the library and in the laboratory.
United States Patent 5,256,700 to Aeschbach et al of Nestec, S.A., Vevey, Switzerland, acknowledges the
powerful antioxidant characteristics of carnosic acid and describes a method for extracting it from vegetable
material, such as rosemary.

Klavdija Riznar et al,
"Solubility of Carnosic Acid and Carnosol from Rosemary Estract in Supercritical CO2",
Acta Chim Slov., 55, 516-520 (2008).

Poeckel et al,
"Carnosic Acid and Carnosol Potently Inhibit Human 5-lipoxygenase and Suppress
Proinflammatory Responses of Stimulated Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes", Department of
Pharmaceutical Analytics, Pharmaceutical Institute, Eberhard-Karls-University, Tubinger, Germany, Biochem
Pharmacol (2008).

"Pharmacology of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) and its Therapeutic Potentials", India J. Exp. Biol.
37(2):124-30 (Feb. 1999) reports that rosmarinic acid has a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of
peptic ulcers, inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cancer and other diseases.  It is
also reported that rosmarinic acid is well absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and the skin.

M. J. McKeown, "Rosemary," http://www.cancerlynx.com/rosemary.html, (December 17, 2007), reports that
carnosic acid is capable of neutralizing several free radicals without recycling.

United States Patent 6,391,344 and United States Patent 6,479,549 to Kosaka et al of Nagase & Company,
Osaka, Japan, describes a method of promoting the synthesis of nerve growth factor by administering an
effective amount of rosemary extract or carnosic acid and/or carnosol to a subject.

Huang et al., "Inhibition of Skin, Tumerigenesis by Rosemary and its Constituents Carnosol and Ursolic Acid",
Cancer Research, 1, 54(3); 701-708(1994).

Aruoma et al, "An Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antiviral Action of Extracts of Rosemary and Provencal
Herbs, Food Chem. Toxicology, No. 34, 449-456 (1996).

United States Patent 4,450,097 to Nakatani et al of Lion Corporation, Tokyo, Japan is a early reference noting
the antioxidant characteristics of compounds extracted from rosemary, including carnosic acid.

Munne-Bosch et al,
"Subcellular Compartmentation of the Diterpene Carnosic Acid and its Derivatives in the
Leaves of Rosemary", Plant Physiology, 125(2), 1094-1102 (2001).

"Carnosol-Induced Apoptosis and Downregulation of Bcl-2 in B-lineage Leukemia Cells", Cancer Lett.,
170(1):33-9 (Sept. 10, 2001) reports that carnosol may be useful as a novel chemotherapeutic agent against
B-lineage leukemias and possibly other types of cancers that express high levels of Bcl-2 protective protein.  
Carnosol is reported to be cytotoxic against several pro-B and pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) lines.  
In all of the acute lymphoblastic leukemia lines tested, carnosol induced apoptotic cell death characterized by
loss of nuclear DNA, externalization of cell membrane phosphatidylserine, and depolarization of mitochondrial

United States Patent 6,180,144 to Hill et al of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio, described
the use of carnosic acid to stabilize chewing gum.

"Antiplatelet Activity of Carnosic Acid, a Phenolic Diterpene from Rosmarinus Officinalis",
Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum, College of Pharmacy, Research Center for Bioresource Health,
Chungbuk National University,Cheongju, Korea, Planta Med, 73(2), 121-127.
References of Significance
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